Title: China’s Social Sector and the Emergence of GONGOs
Author: Ratish Mehta, Research Associate, ORCA.
Date: 1 November 2022
- In China’s communist regime, social organisations exist to serve at the discretion of one party that rules over the state apparatuses in the country. This approach of integrating civil societies within the state’s dynamics is widely known as the state-led approach of social organisations, more generally finding their inception in authoritative regimes and contrary to western perspective of Civil Societies.
- These Government-organised non-governmental organisations (GONGOs), receive a majority of their funding from state-owned enterprises as well as the Chinese state, thus further complicating the distinction between non-state and state actors in China’s political dynamics.
- Many of China’s self-grown GONGOs have also gone global by setting up bases in Africa and South Asia; working primarily in countries with large-scale ongoing infrastructural projects funded by the Chinese entities.
- Party Secretaries and other senior members of important GONGOs are granted membership in the CPC’s Central Committees, signifying the important role GONGOs play in China’s political dynamics.
- China’s GONGOs are a contemporary example of how Beijing views the global future dominated by a form of Chinese statecraft and how it has very little to do with western democratic values, thus, also signifying the Chinese state’s perspective of GONGOs as an essential medium of export to nations that are vital for China’s domestic and international interests.
Title: The National Party Congress and the Central Committee
Author: Siddhant Nair, Junior Research Associate, ORCA.
Date: 8 October 2022
- The National Party Congress (NPC) convenes once every five years to discuss the report of the Central Committee, and approve a new Central Committee.
- Despite the high stature of the Party Congress, it only serves as a platform to publicly announce pre-decided agenda based on informal meetings and sessions such as the Beidaihe meeting.
- The Central Committee is one of the most powerful political organs of the Party, selecting and approving members of the Politburo, the Politburo Standing Committee, and the Central Military Commission.
Title: 1978 Reforms and the Four Modernisations
Author: Ahana Roy, Junior Researcher and Executive Outreach Head , ORCA; Siddhant Nair, Junior Research Associate, ORCA.
Date: 22 September 2022
- 1978 reforms aimed at transitioning a state-run, Chinese economy towards an open market economy, away from state ownership.
- The reforms focused on four modernisations: targets for agriculture, industry, science and technology and defence.
- The reforms enabled China to attract foreign capital, modernise industry, import foreign technological inputs, and access global markets.
Title: China’s Dual Constitution System
Author: Siddhant Nair, Research Associate, ORCA; Ahana Roy, Junior Researcher and Executive Outreach Head , ORCA.
Date: 8 September 2022
- China follows a dual constitution system; the Party Constitution and the State Constitution.
- The State Constitution lays down the law, gives different organs of the government duties, and is the “written” constitution.
- Due to the CCP’s authority and position in Chinese politics, the Party Constitution is more important than the State Constitution.
- The Preamble of the State Constitutions highlights the importance of the Party and its necessity at the top of the political hierarchy.
Title: Made in China 2025
Author: Siddhant Nair, Research Associate, ORCA
Date: 30 August 2022
- Made in China 2025 aims to localize and indigenize high-tech industries, making China a manufacturing superpower by 2049.
- Reduce over-dependence on foreign firms, and increase the competitiveness of domestic firms through state-sponsored investments and funds.
- The West has been critical of China’s “Made in China 2025” as it leads to global market-distorting, stealing intellectual property, poaching talent, and more.
Title: Beidaihe Meeting
Author: Ahana Roy, Junior Researcher & Executive Outreach Head, ORCA
Date: 22 August 2022
- Top CCP leaders and other experts gather at the coastal resort town of Beidaihe under the guise of a summer break, whereas in reality, major political considerations take place in informal settings.
- While President Xi Jinping’s rule has decreased the significance of Beidaihe, it is still a crucial forum for debate and deliberation over key state policies.
- The Beidaihe meetings are shrouded in mystery and it receives little to no official media coverage.