Graphs and Maps

This section explains China in the form of data visualisations

Graph 1: The number of mobile subscriptions refers to the number of SIM cards being used in each country and not the number of people using a mobile device. The indicator includes the number of post-paid subscriptions and active prepaid accounts. The number of mobile subscriptions in China has steadily grown from 2000 to 2020, driven mainly by a rising middle class, low-cost offering of budget phones and the expansion of telecommunication infrastructure in rural areas. The country crossed 1 billion mobile subscribers in March 2012, reflecting the prominence of the mobile phone in China’s economic and social spheres. Germany has been used as a benchmark because of its high performance in indicators of digital connectivity.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 2: China established its first internet connection in 1994, becoming the 77th country to go online. The number of internet users in China began to spike in 2006 and by 2011 the country had more internet users than the US. The massive rise in internet users was driven by several factors: migration to cities, rise of e-commerce, offerings of 3G services and the limited appeal of traditional media like TV for younger audiences. In the years leading up to the boom in 2006, the Chinese government rolled out legislation and regulations for companies offering internet services and general internet use. Germany has been used as a benchmark because of its high performance in indicators of digital connectivity.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 3: Mobile and broadband speeds for download and upload are key measures of internet quality, network reliability and consumer satisfaction. Although there are significant disparities in the broadband internet speeds of coastal provinces and inland ones, China ranked 22nd out of 178 countries in 2019, with an average download speed of 90.6 Mbps. Since hundreds of millions of Chinese access the internet through their smartphone, mobile internet speeds are also important to gauge for internet access quality. With the largest 4G infrastructure in the world, China ranked 53rd of 139 countries in terms of mobile download speeds, averaging 28.9 Mbps in March 2019. Germany has been used as a benchmark because of its high performance in indicators of digital connectivity.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 4: Hospital beds per 1000 people or hospital bed density is an indicator for availability of healthcare resources in a country. In China, there are differences in the number of hospital beds in rural and urban areas, and Western counties in China have lower bed density compared to the East and South-eastern parts of the country. By 2009, the number of hospital beds per 1000 people in China was close to the number of average numbers of hospital beds per 1000 people in upper-middle-income countries.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 5: Out of pocket (OOP) healthcare payments are expenditures borne directly by a patient or households from their income or savings. Out of pocket healthcare expenses are responsible for pushing millions of families into poverty every year. In China the share of OOP expenditure has steadily increased from 20% in 1980 to 49% in 2006. They have dropped steadily since 2006. The introduction of Catastrophic Medical Insurance (CMI) in China in 2013 (urban and rural) covers 1.01 billion people and provides financial protection to families from the risk of large medical expenditures.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 6: Current healthcare expenditure as a percentage of GDP provides an indication of the resources committed to healthcare relative to other sectors. Growth in healthcare expenditure in China was driven by increases in real expenditure per prevalent case, excess health price inflation and population growth. The global average for current healthcare expenditure in 2018 was 6.53%.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 7: China and India’s imports from Iran have grown steadily since the 1990s, only to drop steeply in 2018, largely due to US sanctions on Iran’s trading partners in 2019. China’s imports from Iran decreased sharply when the Trump Administration placed sanctions on Iran and threatened to punish Iran’s trading partners like China and India. Imports from Iran have been made expensive by the financial sanctions on Iranian banks which cut them off from the SWIFT system.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 8: China’s imports from Russia have expanded significantly since 2009 and Beijing has become Russia’s top export market. For 2021, China’s imports from Russia were worth 79.3 billion USD, with oil and gas accounting for nearly 56% of that. Total trade between Russia and China reached a record high in 2021 (146.9 billion USD), growing by 35.9% year on year, according to China’s customs agency. Russia enjoys a trade surplus with China and since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, China has become Russia’s biggest export partner.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 9: Color TV Sets per 100 Rural Households (1998-2018)
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 10: The consumption of consumer durables in rural China is driving the fastest growing home appliances market in the world. The rise in consumption of goods like refrigerators is driven by several factors other than increases in disposable income. The popularity of e-commerce is driving sales of consumer goods in rural areas. Chinese consumers increased their spending on home appliances in 2019, with more than 40% of orders placed online.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).
Graph 11: Washing machines, like other consumer durables, have become prevalent in provinces across China. The use of home appliances is an indicator of the growing appetite for consumer goods in rural China. Provinces with significant number of washing machines in 1998 were generally coastal provinces. The adoption of technologies like washing machines, refrigerators and TVs was also aided by improvements in the provision of public goods in rural areas.
Graphs prepared by Rahul Karan (Research Associate, ORCA).