• Sanctions placed on US arms manufacturers for sale to Taiwan: China has sanctioned two major arms manufacturing companies involved in the US sale of weaponry to Taiwan. The two defence corporations targeted are Lockheed Martin, St. Louis, MO and Northrop Grumman. The first was the major contractor of the $500 million worth of arms sales to Taiwan and the second was frequently involved too. The USA recently sold the first-ever U.S. military transfer worth $80 million to Taiwan. The foreign ministry released a statement declaring the reason for the sanctions was to safeguard China’s national security and sovereignty. It was in accordance with the Anti-Foreign Sanctions Law of the PRC. China views this as a clear violation of its one-China principle and views the US weaponizing Taiwan as a concern to their security interests. They decisively urged the US to stop weapon supplies and military collusion, warning that it would be met with  “China's resolute response."

  • Thailand grants Chinese tourists visa-free access: On a temporary basis, Thailand has waived visa requirements for tourists arriving from China. This is in an attempt to garner increasing visitors and spending during the nation’s pivotal tourist high season. The new Thai government approved the Visa Free policy for a period of September 25 through the end of February 2024. Over 50 countries already had claim to this policy, however, China was not one of them. Chinese tourists had to apply for and pay for visas. The Prime Minister’s objective with this move is to stimulate the economy and prevent slowing down due to weak exports. The Thai economy grew at a slow 1.8% pace in the second quarter, and the tourism industry chips in around 18% of GDP. It began recovering with the lifting of pandemic restrictions with 17.9 million foreign tourists this year, of which, Chinese made up a large proportion of 2.2 million. The year prior only 274,000 Chinese tourists visited. China’s severe “zero COVID” policy till this year created high costs and complications for international travel.

  • Indigenously developed helicopter engines showcased in Tianjin: China showcased a range of domestically developed engines for helicopters and drones at the 6th China Helicopter Exposition in Tianjin on 17th September. The Aero Engine Corporation of China (AECC) displayed various engine products, including high-power, medium, and small engines for manned aircraft and drones. One highlight was a 1,100-kilowatt-class turboshaft engine with advanced features like a sand filter device and a health management system, suitable for utility helicopters weighing five to six tons. AECC also presented a megawatt-class turboshaft engine running solely on hydrogen, aligning with green energy and efficiency trends in aero engines. Beijing Power Machinery Institute, another engine developer, showcased power devices for small fixed-wing drones, rotor wing drones, high-altitude aircraft, and general aviation planes. These engines, developed with extensive missile engine expertise, are designed to replace imported products in the Chinese market, including a 75-kilowatt-class aviation piston engine running on heavy oil and a 100-kilowatt-class electrical fuel injection aviation piston engine, both derived from aerospace technologies. The institute anticipates strong market potential for these engines in drone and advanced target aircraft applications.

  • China sets new standard towards green energy transition: China has introduced the world's first geothermal industry standard with the aim of promoting global efforts towards green and low-carbon energy solutions. Unveiled at the 2023 World Geothermal Congress in Beijing, this standard recommends medium-to-low-temperature hydrothermal geothermal heating practices, drawing from China's own experiences in geothermal heating. Tests conducted in Hebei Province have demonstrated that this standard can ensure the sustainable development and utilization of geothermal heating projects. Key contributors to the standard include Sinopec Group, the China National Petroleum Corporation, Tsinghua University, the China University of Petroleum, and the China University of Geosciences. The 2023 World Geothermal Congress, hosted by China for the first time, had the theme "Clean Geothermal, Green Earth" and brought together over 1,400 participants from 54 countries. The event was organized by Sinopec Group and hosted by the National Geothermal Energy Center.

  • Guangzhou vows crackdown on urban rail disruptors: A draft regulation in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, proposes severe penalties for individuals disrupting urban rail transit operations or endangering safety. Offenses like brawling, indecent behaviour, and unauthorized photography in transit areas may incur fines up to 5,000 yuan for individuals or 30,000 yuan for groups. The regulation covers subways, light rail, and trams. Other prohibited acts include unauthorized entry into restricted areas, reckless boarding or alighting, and carrying electric transportation tools. Offenses affecting the environment, like smoking, spitting, and littering, may result in fines ranging from 50 to 500 yuan. Public feedback is being sought, with a second review scheduled in October before final legislative approval.

  • China records jump in R&D investment: China's National Bureau of Statistics, along with the Ministries of Science and Technology and Finance, have jointly released the "2022 National Statistical Bulletin on Science and Technology Funding Investment." It reveals that China's investment in research and experimental development funds exceeded 3 trillion yuan in 2022, a 10.1% increase from the previous year. Investment intensity (R&D expenditure to GDP ratio) reached 2.54%, the second-highest increase in a decade. Enterprises played a dominant role, contributing 84% to the R&D funds growth. Investment in key sectors and basic research also saw significant expansion.

  • China and Russia hold talks in bilateral summit: Wang Yi, Director of the Foreign Affairs Office of the CPC Central Committee, and Patrushev, Secretary of the Security Council of Russia, co-chaired the 10th China-Russia Summit in Moscow. They held eight rounds of strategic security consultations, discussing ways to deepen strategic cooperation, enhance mutual trust, and coordinate efforts. Wang Yi emphasized the enduring strength of China-Russia relations, highlighting their joint defense of true multilateralism and opposition to power-based bullying. The China-Russia Strategic Security Consultation Mechanism, a crucial component of their partnership, reflects deep political trust and broad strategic coordination.

  • EU launches investigation into Chinese EV exports amid trade concerns: The European Union has launched a countervailing tariff probe into China's electric car exports, citing concerns about fair competition and industry protection. Tariffs of 9%-10% may be levied if Chinese electric cars are judged to have an unfair pricing advantage due to subsidies, causing harm to European producers. Some business executives, however, like as Mercedes-Benz Group CEO Kang Linsong, say that free markets and strong competition are necessary for growth and wealth generation. Protectionist policies can disrupt global supply chains and undermine China-EU economic ties. China supports free markets and fair competition and welcomes investments from European manufacturers. The resolution of the electric car conflict through conversation and consultation is critical for the China-EU alliance, global industrial stability, and effective climate change mitigation. Previous trade conflicts between China and Europe, such as those involving solar panels, were settled through discussion, and a similar approach is expected in this situation.

  • China reduces U.S. Treasury holdings to 14-year low: China, the world's second-largest holder of US Treasury notes, dropped its holdings for the fourth month in a row, reaching a 14-year low of $821.8 billion in July. This strategic decision is ascribed to fears about the shaky US economy, a possible recession in 2024, and the weakening of the US currency. Since April 2022, China has kept its Treasury holdings below $1 trillion. Japan, the largest holder, boosted its holdings to $1.112 trillion in July, while the United Kingdom remained the third-highest holder at $662.4 billion. According to experts, China's continued drop in Treasury holdings underscores larger worries, such as geopolitical tensions and the longer-term weakness of the US currency. While recent economic figures from the United States demonstrate short-term growth and resiliency, analysts warn that the country still confronts economic concerns, including a national debt of more than $33 trillion and possible budgetary issues. Uncertainty over the Federal Reserve's monetary policies may have an influence on China's foreign exchange reserves. Despite the decrease in Treasury holdings, China's foreign exchange reserves grew to $3.2043 trillion in July, marking two months of gain in a row.

  • Global Public Security Cooperation Forum successful with over 400 agreements: At the opening ceremony of the 2023 Conference of Global Public Security Cooperation Forum, the Chinese State Councilor and Minister of Public Security, Wang Xiaohong’s, remarks were regarding China’s willingness to deepen exchanges and cooperation in public security, and promote the development of the global public-security governance system in a more fair, rational, and efficient direction. China’s stance was clear on implementing the Global Security Initiative (GSI) and sharing its experience with other countries to contribute wisdom and strength to deepening global public security governance. The forum’s theme was "One World, Common Security," and saw over 500 senior law enforcement officials, experts, and scholars from over 50 countries, regions, and international organizations. They successfully established bilateral mechanisms for law enforcement cooperation and contact hotlines with over 110 countries, and signed 400+ agreements on the same. This year, the primary initiative focused on telecom fraud and working teams were sent to Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia and other countries.

  • Lizi Port trading facility established in Tibet: China is pushing ahead with the establishment of a trading facility known as Lizi Port in a Tibetan village near the Nepal border. The facility aims to stimulate Tibet's engagement with the outside world, enhance China-Nepal connectivity, foster friendly exchanges, and promote economic and social development in Tibet. The port, situated at a lofty elevation of 4,600 meters, above sea level has completed construction and received the green light from China's commerce ministry although the exact opening date remains unspecified. Lizi Port occupies a historically significant position on the Korala mountain pass serving as a trading hub for Himalayan communities for centuries. Another facility, Nechung has been established on Nepal's side of the border. This new Lizi-Nechung route will be the fourth trading channel along the 1,400-kilometer China-Nepal border, aligning with the Trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network proposed by China as another notch under its Belt and Road Initiative.

  • China-Arab Energy Cooperation Conference advances energy cooperation efforts: The 7th China-Arab Energy Cooperation Conference commenced in Haikou, Hainan Province, with the central theme being "Entering the Golden Era of China-Arab Energy Cooperation of Quality and Sustainability."  The OAPEC expressed active commitment to the China-Arab Energy Cooperation Conference, aiming to advance collaborative efforts between China and key Arab oil and gas-producing nations. The significant progress in China-Arab energy cooperation, characterized by the continuous expansion was emphasised. Delegates at the conference noted the rising interest among Arab countries in diverse forms of renewable and clean energy, Chinese energy technologies, and livelihood projects initiated by Arab nations. This enthusiasm is perceived as a substantial opportunity for cooperation between China and Arab countries in the energy domain. The conference underscores the mutual dedication of both China and Arab nations to bolster their energy collaboration, particularly in renewable energy and technology transfer, fostering energy security and economic development.

  • Xi Jinping meets Syrian President Bashar al-Assad: On September 22nd, Xi Jinping and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad met in Hangzhou, China where they together announced the establishment of a strategic partnership between the two countries. The move is in the context of Syria being among the first Arab nations to establish diplomatic ties with China and one of the only countries that supported China’s rightful seat in the UN. The meeting emphasised the 67-year-long friendship that has lasted the test of time amongst changing international dynamics. The partnership is viewed as a pivotal milestone. Xi expressed his commitment to deepening these relations with the aim of advancing the partnership. President Assad expressed appreciation for Chinese assistance especially in the face of adversity and expressed gratitude for being invited to China and expressed a desire to foster long-term strategic cooperation across sectors. 

  • US and China establish Economic Working Group: China and the United States have agreed to establish two working groups, the “Economic Working Group” and the “Financial Working Group” following the meeting in Bali last year. The group will focus on economic and financial matters. The economic working group will be led by officials at the deputy ministerial level from the Treasury Department of both China and the United States. The “Financial Working Group” will be led by officials at the deputy ministerial level from the People’s Bank of China and the U.S. Treasury Department. The groups will conduct regular and irregular meetings to facilitate communication and exchanges concerning issues related to the economic and financial domains. This initiative aims to strengthen cooperation and address relevant challenges between the two countries.

  • National Internet Refutation Linkage Mechanism set up in China: On 22nd September, the Cyberspace Administration of China held their first plenary meeting of the National Network Rumor Refutation Linkage Mechanism in Beijing. This effort is guided by the Central Propaganda Department and led by the Central Cyberspace Administration of China.  It included 41 central and state agencies, departments and people’s organisations as member units. It also included local cyberspace departments, major central news units, science institutions and large commercial website platforms. The meeting emphasized the need to use various measures to enhance the ability to monitor and detect online rumours. The effort also aims to improve coordination and linkages in the process of verifying rumours. The commitment to take strong action against rumours in key areas of significance and against those who engage in the dissemination of false information. The effort is aimed at combating the spread of online rumours through targeted coordinated action to get results.
  • China denies entry of Indian athletes to the 19th Asian Games in Hangzhou: Three Indian martial arts athletes, Nyeman Wangsu, Onilu Tega, and Mepung Lamgu, hailing from the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, have been denied entry for travelling to China for the Asian Games, despite approval from the Asian Games Organizing Committee. Right after the incident came to light, Indian Sports Minister Anurag Thakur declined the invitation to travel to China for the inauguration of the 19th Asian Games and the Indian Ministry of External Affairs asserted that ‘Arunachal Pradesh is an integral and inalienable part of India, and it shall remain so.’ Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Mao Ning emphasized during a press conference that China welcomes athletes from around the world to participate in the Asian Games provided they possess legal documentation. Mao Ning reiterated that China which refers to Arunachal Pradesh as ‘South Tibet’, does not recognise India’s sovereignty over the region, had offered separate visas to the three Indian female athletes for use alongside their passports. The athletes had declined this offer as it deviates from the established practice of athletes entering the country using athlete registration cards. India expressed its strong objection to China's discrimination against their athletes' participation, denouncing it as a violation of the Asian Games' spirit and athlete conduct regulations.

  • National Bureau of Statistics speaks out about China’s housing crisis: At the 2023 China Real Economy Development Conference on September 23rd, He Keng, the former deputy director of the National Bureau of Statistics, and presently deputy director of the Financial and Economic Committee expressed concern about the vacant properties in China, and its population of 1.4 billion unable to purchase and fill these real estates. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, from January to August 2023, national commercial housing sales area registered a 7.1% decline and estate development investment in China fell by 8.8%. However, the housing sector as one of the cornerstones of China's economy, has been grappling with challenges since 2021, evident in the debt default of real estate giants - China Evergrande Group and Country Garden. In order to mitigate the crisis, He Keng remarked that it would be unwise to vigorously promote real estate development in the face of such a surplus. The repercussions of this situation can create a ripple effect across the Chinese economy that has seen a decrease in demand for construction materials and labour, reduced income of local governments, and forcing consumers to adopt a more conservative approach to their spending.

  • Leading Chinese university eliminates English proficiency test for graduation: Xi'an Jiaotong University, one of China's prestigious institutions located in Shaanxi Province recently announced the removal of College English Tests (CET) as a mandatory requirement for degree conferment, becoming the first Chinese university to take this step. English, along with Chinese and mathematics, has traditionally been one of the three mandatory subjects in the national college entrance exam, or gaokao. Typically, the CET requires students to pass both Band 4 to secure a university place and Band 6 to graduate. Discussions about reducing the weightage of English and increasing that of Chinese in the education system have encouraged universities to ease entry requirements. During the annual legislative session in Beijing in March, lawmaker Tuo Qingming brought the debate into the spotlight by asserting that English had ‘limited practical value for many Chinese people’. However, this decision has sparked debate among academic circles who feel the delineation of focus from English education will bring lower graduation standards, and compromise the holistic development of high-quality professionals.

  • Harsher penalties for cyberbullying: A new guideline issued jointly by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, and the Ministry of Public Security in China requires stricter punishments for cyberbullying against children and the disabled. The guideline aims to clean up the online environment and protect the rights of internet users. It specifies that harsher penalties should be imposed on those who organize cyberbullying, create sex-related content to harm individuals' dignity or use generative artificial intelligence to disseminate illegal information. Cyberbullying facilitated or condoned by internet platforms should also be strongly combated. Prosecutors can initiate public interest lawsuits against internet service providers that fail to address cyberbullying on their platforms. The guideline emphasizes the importance of protecting victims during case handling and promoting civilized internet behaviour through education on relevant laws.

  • Former Vice Governor of PBOC faces prosecution: 59-year-old Fan Yifei, former vice-governor of the People's Bank of China, faces prosecution for alleged bribery in Hubei province, according to the Supreme People's Procuratorate. The case was transferred from the National Supervisory Commission, which had approved Fan's arrest in June. He is accused of exploiting various roles held throughout his career, including positions at China Construction Bank, China Investment Corporation, and the Bank of Shanghai. Fan allegedly facilitated loan financing, contracts, and work transfers for companies and individuals in exchange for substantial benefits. In November 2022, he underwent disciplinary review and was subsequently removed from his vice-governor position. In June of the following year, he was expelled from the Communist Party and ousted from all public posts. Fan hails from Jiangsu province and assumed the role of vice-governor in February 2015.

  • Xi Jinping calls for advanced free trade zones: Chinese President Xi Jinping emphasized creating advanced pilot free trade zones (FTZs), urging them to pioneer innovation and face challenges head-on. Xi, also the general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, highlighted FTZ construction as a strategic move for modernizing reform and opening-up. He praised FTZs as vital testing grounds, driving fundamental policies and institutional innovations over the past decade. Xi called for FTZs to lead in exploration and problem-solving. He outlined their role in high-level opening-up, institutional innovation, coordinated development, and alignment with global economic rules. Vice Premier He Lifeng conveyed Xi's message at a Beijing meeting celebrating China's first FTZ's 10th anniversary.


  • Chinese actor smashes Apple device, sparks social media response: Chinese actor Liu Jin stirred a social media frenzy by smashing his iPhone 13 Pro Max outside a Beijing Apple store. Upset over a repair dispute, Liu, who bought the phone in August 2022, faced hardware issues after a year. Apple refused free repair, citing unauthorized modification, and demanded a 6,960 yuan ($950) fee. In protest, Liu shattered the device, vowing never to buy from Apple again. The incident ignited Weibo, with the related hashtag viewed over 270 million times.

  • Campus bullying incident in Dataong raises concerns: In a recent incident at the Dacheng Bilingual School in Datong City, Shanxi Province, the investigation of a child bullying incident has sparked discussion among the people about bullying and child rights. The incident was first revealed by the concerned parents, who took to the internet to reveal a harrowing account of their fourth-grade son's bullying ordeal at the hands of a classmate. This has ignited public outrage and has prompted widespread discussions about the pressing need for schools to provide a safe and supportive environment for students. According to the posts shared by netizens, many believe that juvenile perpetrators should bear the responsibility for their actions, whereas others have blamed the school authorities and the relevant authorities who have failed to take these matters seriously. Most expressed zero tolerance for wrongdoing within educational institutions and the importance of safeguarding the well-being, safety, and future of students. The incident also underscored the importance of addressing and preventing bullying by highlighting the essential role that parents, teachers, and authorities play in protecting the emotional and mental well-being of children.

  • Evergrande debt dominates social media: The crisis surrounding China Evergrande Group is generating intense discussions on Chinese social media platforms. Some individuals are debating whether to invest in the company's struggling penny stock, while others believe bankruptcy is becoming increasingly likely. The situation took a turn for the worse when Evergrande's major onshore unit, Hengda Real Estate Group, failed to repay a 4 billion yuan (US$547 million) note, adding to the company's staggering $327 billion debt load. The unit is in discussions with bondholders to find a solution that does not evade debt obligations. Regulatory investigations into market breaches have further complicated Evergrande's financial situation, limiting its ability to sell new bonds in offshore markets. Social media users expressed concerns about Evergrande's ability to secure new financing and its potential for bankruptcy if debt restructuring efforts fail. The company's shares have experienced significant declines, with some cautiously considering investing while advising others to exercise caution. Financial experts warn that Evergrande's debt restructuring challenges may persist, with any violations posing significant risks given the company's massive debt burden. The recent restrictions on offshore bond sales further complicate the situation and raise doubts about the company's revival.

  • Use of stock footage by live streamer sparks debate on authenticity in social media: Chen Yi-ru, a prominent live streamer known as Calvin Chen, recently faced controversy when fans suspected he used pre-recorded footage for his streams. Initially, viewers believed the broadcasts were live, but doubts arose during a 15-hour session when Chen continuously tasted food and an odd glitch occurred. Chen, a former member of pop group "Fahrenheit," transitioned to e-commerce livestreaming in 2021, quickly amassing success with 103 million yuan ($14 million) in sales within a month. While some speculated an AI-generated avatar, insiders suggested pre-recorded content. A visible label on-screen stated "Authorized by Chen Yi-ru," with a disclaimer below clarifying it wasn't a real person. This sparked online discussions, with some questioning the authenticity and fairness of such practices. A highly-upvoted comment on Douyin asked if artists could now make money without actually participating, while another remarked on the shift from pretending to eat to not needing to eat at all.



  • Development of indigenous defence industry in India: India has taken significant steps towards indigenisation of the defence industry so as to prevent costly import of defence technology from other countries. However, it has also acknowledged that not everything can be domestically produced. China currently ranks among the top five largest arms exporter in the world while India is the top importer of arms supplies in the world. India despite making advances in space and satellite technology has yet to produce a jet engine for its combat aircrafts because of which it now has to consider entering agreements with the French manufacturers who are charging 1 billion dollars for technology transfer. India is overly reliant on defence imports while China, its main strategic rival, has become a defence export powerhouse. This situation is concerning, especially given the tense border standoff in Ladakh among other areas. The problem has two parts: a significant portion of India's military spending goes to pensions, and the day-to-day costs exceed capital outlays for modernization. To address this, the armed forces should be streamlined for better efficiency, and there must be clarity on indigenous defence production and technology transfer. Currently, foreign vendors often fail to fulfil offset obligations, leading to a lack of technology transfer and benefits for India's defence industry. Unless offset obligations are enforced and indigenous production is boosted, the gap with China will continue to widen.

  • Sports diplomacy and denial of entry to the three Indian athletes in the 19th Asian Games: The denial of entry to the three Indian athletes in the 19th Asian Games in Hangzhou warrants a closer attention to China’s tactics and employment of tools to question India’s sovereignty in the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh. According to the protocol for the Asian Games, all sportspersons were given athlete cards which served as visas for entry into China, and not visas on their passports. However, the targeting of three Indian athletes and the decision to use separate visas for their entry puts further fuel to the ongoing tensions between India and China. It is also no coincidence that the three sportspersons were all from Arunachal Pradesh, a state China views as ‘South Tibet’ and autonomously theirs. China's practice of stapling visas instead of stamping them into passports for people from disputed territories has been a longstanding source of tension between China and India. The issue also stands in tandem with China’s release of a new map which depicted Arunachal Pradesh as part of China's official territory. Despite ministerial meetings and high-level exchanges, this move meant that ongoing tensions surrounding the border dispute are unlikely to be saturated by diplomatic endeavour. It is clear that this incident has the potential to impact diplomatic relations between the two countries and such matters should not be taken lightly. As Xi Jinping’s speech in the inauguration ceremony of the games highlighted how politics and sports are separable categories by including the likes of Asian countries like Afghanistan and Jordan, the message should be meted out to the Indian side as well and the constructive role of sports diplomacy be considered in resolving broader disputes.

Prepared By

Combined works by various researchers at ORCA

Alok has recently finished his M. A. In Politics with International Studies from Jawaharlal Nehru University. He is currently a China Studies fellow at Takshashila Institution.

Anakha S Thampy is currently pursuing her dual Masters degree - an MA in International Studies from Symbiosis International University, Pune, and an MA in Sustainability Science from IGNOU. Having completed her Bachelor's in Political Science, she aspires to make a significant impact in society by becoming a Civil Servant. Her research focus revolves around the captivating realms of Asian area studies and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Ananya Singh is a student of International Studies and Public Policy at FLAME University. She is actively involved in research pursuits such as taking on corporate risk analysis internships, publishing articles on the conflict and politics in Asia; undertaking research on economic policy; engaging in various national-level youth G20/policy-making/leadership conferences and debates; and creating webinars/media on sociopolitical issues. Her research interests in the field currently include political risk analysis, defence studies, maritime security and international law with a regional focus on West Asia. She has also supplemented her portfolio with proficiency in French and an understanding of German and Persian.

Prejomon Sunny Chummar holds a Master's degree in International and Area Studies from MMAJ Academy of International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, with a Bachelor's degree in Journalism and Mass Communication from EFLU Shillong. His interests revolve around the intersection of cinema, culture, and politics, including the intricate dynamics of soft power politics. Additionally, his scholarly interests encompass the rich histories and cultures of China, Russia and Central Asia. With a keen passion for cinema and literature, he is an ardent cinephile and devoted reader.

Priyanka Raman is a final-year student at Shiv Nadar University Noida, with a major in international relations and a minor in communications. Through her degree, she has had the opportunity to pursue multiple courses relating to Chinese politics and is deeply interested in politics of the Party media and knowledge dessimination. Her research interests surround topics of propaganda media and politics, gender and international relations and refugee politics.

Taru Ahluwalia completed her Post-Graduation in East Asian Studies from the University of Delhi and her Under-Graduation in English from Lady Shri Ram College for Women. She aims to decode the enigma that is East Asia and examine its geopolitical re-positioning in today’s world. She holds a diploma in Korean Language and aspires to learn Chinese one day.

CiCM 16th-30th September 2023

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